excerpt, What Is A Spiritual Assessment?

[This is an excerpt from The Chaplain Skillset Series, Vol 3: Understanding the Spiritual Assessment. A complimentary copy is available as an e-book on Amazon.com thru April 24, 2016.]

Chapter Two: What Is A Spiritual Assessment?

Rev. Keith A Evans DC, DMin and Zacarias C Buhuro MA, MDiv

For chaplains in any setting, the unspoken protocol is to assess the spirituality and beliefs of the individual which they are ministering. Completing a spirituality assessment allows the chaplain to see what spiritual or faith-specific resources the individual may need for the situation. To do this well, one must understand what spirituality is and what the objectives of completing a spiritual assessment might be.

For a quick review of how spirituality is defined, Christina Puchalski MD of George Washington Institute of Spirituality and Health states,

Spirituality is the aspect of humanity that refers to the way individuals seek and express meaning and purpose and the way they experience their connectedness to the moment, to self, to others, to nature, and to the significant or sacred (Puchalski, 2014, p. 642).

Stephen R. Covey states, “The spiritual dimension is your core, your center, your commitment to your value system. It’s a very private area of life and a supremely important one” (Covey, p. 170).

One can quickly assess from just these two definitions of spirituality that spirituality is multi-faceted and complex.

Chaplains are often asked, “Is there a difference between spirituality and religion?” Some may disagree but my generalized answer is, “Yes.” First of all, everyone has a spirituality within them, whether they personally recognize it or not. People are spiritual in nature. Secondly, I view religion as the way an individual or group determines how they learn and practice (rites, rituals and worship) their spirituality, beliefs and their theologically-based faith. Religion is where your theology, doctrines and dogmas are developed. However, I do not believe a person can commit to and authentically practice a religion without a sense of their own spirituality or spiritual needs. But one may express their spirituality outside of traditional religious practices.

George Fitchett’s book Assessing Spiritual Needs: A Guide for Caregivers (1993) has become a classic among professional chaplains and as a vital clinical pastoral education resource. Fitchett’s work revealed that many approaches were being used to accomplish a spiritual assessment. He discovered that chaplains were using a broad range of spiritual assessments from informal and personal methods to very precise, impersonal “diagnostic” surveys.

Fitchett discusses the importance of the spiritual assessment. For the chaplain, the spiritual assessment becomes the foundation for developing an action plan which will direct soul care, as well as to promote intentional and effective spiritual communication, as well as a way to evaluate chaplaincy interactions, maintain personal accountability, quality assurance, and establish the role and purpose of the chaplain. But whichever spiritual assessment model that is used by a chaplain, these objectives should be foundational to the model’s overall purpose.

Through Fitchett’s research and personal experience, he developed his own spiritual assessment model called the 7 x 7 Model. This model is conceptual, functional, holistic, and provides a great framework for chaplains in any setting for spiritually assessments. In brief, he states that holistic wellness is built around seven dimensions:

  1. Medical
  2. Psychological
  3. Psychosocial
  4. Family systems
  5. Ethnic and cultural
  6. Societal issues
  7. Spiritual dimensions

One can easily see the influence which each of these seven dimensions has upon an individual’s life and perceptions of holistic wellness.

Within the Spiritual dimension, Fitchett’s 7 x 7 Model describes seven smaller categories which give the broader perspective and complex intricacies for an individual’s overall spirituality:

  1. Beliefs and meaning
  2. Vocation and consequences
  3. Experience and emotion
  4. Courage and growth
  5. Ritual and practice
  6. Community
  7. Authority and guidance

In Douglas Edward Robinson’s doctoral work on spiritual assessment and his evaluation of Fitchett’s 7 x 7 Model, he states,

For review, the two hemispheres of assessment are the Holistic and Spiritual…It is likely that you will not gain all the information you seek in the first visit, or during all of your visits. Time does not always permit this thorough an assessment. Remember that hospital patient needs and challenges can rapidly change. Hospitalized patients may present with multiple issues. When this is the case, you may first need to address the most crucial issue, before tending to the others. The important thing to remember is that spiritual care in the hospital is need-based and fluid. Let the patient direct you to the areas in greatest need of intervention. Spiritual welfare and appropriate intervention is always more important than getting all the information. Promoting such integration requires an appropriate assessment of patient spirituality, and definition of conditions for spiritual interventions, that improve patient care (Robinson, 2012).

Fitchett’s 7 x 7 Model seems daunting at first glance, but it actually is a common-sense and thorough approach. It hits upon all aspects of life. If a chaplain, or any person ministering to another, can remember to utilize just a few of these sections, they will more than likely have a meaningful encounter. Of course, the inclusion of all seven areas of the spiritual dimension remains the objective goal.

The next chapter will review a few of the more common spiritual assessments which are in the literature and being practically used in different clinical and public ministry settings. But first, let’s hear about some of the benefits of a chaplain using spiritual assessments.

The Practical Benefits of the Spiritual Assessment

Performing a spiritual assessment should not be about imposing a set of rigid questions on an individual. It should be an interactive conversation between individuals. This discussion will center on healthcare settings, but the spiritual assessment can be administered in any setting with individuals who may be hurting spiritually.

Buhuro: Upon admission to the hospital, patients may undergo a spiritual screening, which is generally very short in nature. The spiritual screening simply asks questions such as, “Do you have spiritual beliefs? Do you have a faith or church preference? Do you want a local minister or church to visit you while you are admitted?”

However, as the patients stay for one or more days, there is a need for a professional chaplain to do the spiritual assessment. A spiritual assessment helps to address the patient’s needs in a more holistic way and also to engage the patients on the meaning of their life as they are dealing with an illness.

One may not claim to belong to any organized religion or may even claim that they are “atheists.” What is important to know is that the spiritual assessment taps into the core of what and who the person is, in terms of meaning making of what is happening in their life.

What does it mean, for example, for a mother that is accustomed to waking up every morning, going to work, taking care of her family and so on…but now she is in the hospital facing a serious illness? What does she make of news about a new diagnosis that may interfere with her daily life? How does she cope with that? Who supports her? How can others be of support to her?

The spiritual assessment deals with the ultimate meaning of life regardless of the person’s religiosity. In my work with hospice patients, one of the dominant issue which often needed to be addressed was their pain. The pain here is not only physical, but emotional, psychological and spiritual pain…..


Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, Signature Edition 4.0. Salt Lake City: FranklinCovey, date not listed.

Fitchett, George. Assessing Spiritual Needs: A Guide for Caregivers. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1993.

Puchalski, Christina M., Robert Vitillo, Sharon K. Hull and Nancy Reller. “Improving the Spiritual Dimension of Whole Person Care: Reaching National and International Consensus.” Journal of Palliative Medicine 17, no. 6, 2014: 642.

Robinson, Douglas Edward. “Pastoral Care: A New Model For Assessing the Spiritual Needs of Hospitalized Patients.” D.Min. dissertation. Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary, August 2012: 111-112. http://www.digitalcommons.liberty.edu


excerpt, Understanding Spirituality and World Faith Expressions

[This excerpt is from The Chaplain Skillset Series, Vol 2: Understanding Spirituality and World Faith Expressions. It is available as an e-book on Amazon.com. ]

Chapter One: The Need

Rev. Keith A Evans D.C., D.Min.

I am a clinical hospital chaplain. You might also consider me a workplace (or marketplace/corporate) chaplain. I say that because I not only work with patients and families but I also spend a great deal of time in building relationships with the organization’s employees in order to minister to them as needs arise. My doctoral work centered on a ministry development project evaluating a specific workplace spirituality environment. The objective was to discover if there were new initiatives which could be implemented which could improve the workplace spirituality perception as well as the practical application of spirituality with employees. (I discuss the spiritual assessment of individuals and organizations in volume three of The Chaplain Skillset Series.)

It did not take long into my literature review and research endeavor to realize that I did not have enough experience with diverse world faiths. I did not truly understand how each faith and belief system expressed themselves (verbally and non-verbally) or how different beliefs guide daily decision making and a person’s perspective of hope, inner peace and life satisfaction. I needed to brush up on my understanding of spirituality expressions, and I needed to do it quickly. I asked myself, “How can a chaplain serving any workplace function to their greatest potential? How can chaplains achieve the best outcomes for their organization? Can this occur if the chaplain does not understand the spirituality and faith demographics of those he or she ministers?” This was where I found myself. Responsible, but not being held accountable. So I began an intensive self-study.

Most chaplains operate on the assumption that spirituality exists and every person possesses a spirituality, whether they fully recognize it or not (Marques, Dhiman and King, pp. 6-7). But one’s spirituality is not by nature or by definition solely about religion or religiosity. This principle has become a foundational pillar for my chaplaincy. Judith A. Neal states that most management authors and consultants in the field of workplace spirituality,

Define the human being as consisting of four parts or four types of energy: (1) Physical: Our ability to take good care of our bodies and physical well-being; (2) Mental: Our ability to think clearly, learn, and make good decisions; (3) Emotional: Our ability to create positive relationships and to handle difficult situations; (4) Spiritual: Our ability to connect to something greater than ourselves and to be of service in the world (Judith Neal, 2014).

Adding to Neal’s definition, Gilbert Fairholm explains,

One’s spirituality is the essence of who he or she is. It defines the inner self, separate from the body, but including the physical and intellectual self […] Spirituality also is the quality of being spiritual, of recognizing the intangible, life-affirming force in self and all human beings. It is a state of intimate relationship with the inner self of higher values and morality. It is recognition of the truth of the inner nature of people (Gilbert Fairholm, Capturing the Heart of Leadership, p. 29).

For scholars, it has taken many years to arrive at a consensus on how to define spirituality, as spirituality can be viewed from many perspectives. Christina Puchalski MD serves as the Director of the George Washington Institute of Spirituality and Health. In 2009 and 2014, Puchalski moderated a healthcare panel for spirituality and palliative care and assisted in producing a consensus definition for spirituality. The panel concluded, “Spirituality is the aspect of humanity that refers to the way individuals seek and express meaning and purpose and the way they experience their connectedness to the moment, to self, to others, to nature, and to the significant or sacred” (Puchalski et al, 2014, p. 642).

Others perceive that spirituality stems from one’s inner consciousness and is the source behind the outward form of defined religious practices (Guillory, p. xi). Religion is more strictly defined as how one’s spirituality is practiced within a specific doctrinal or theological context. In a White Paper on professional chaplaincy, spirituality is explained as,

An awareness of relationships with all creation, an appreciation of presence and purpose that includes a sense of meaning. Though not true generations ago, a distinction is frequently made today between spirituality and religion, the latter focusing on defined structures, rituals and doctrines. While religion and medicine were virtually inseparable for thousands of years, the advent of science created a chasm between the two. The term spirituality is a contemporary bridge that renews this relationship (VandeCreek and Burton, 2001, p. 82).

Studies of the spiritual paradigm repeatedly reveal that “people not only work with their hands, but also their hearts and spirit” (Petchsawanga and Duchon, p. 190). Louis Fry’s research of spiritual business leadership observed that when a worker’s inner life is able to consistently fuel their hope and faith into a more transcendent vision of service in all parts of their life, they will begin to live life as it was created, as a precious gift (Fry and Nisiewicz, 2013). A problem which many chaplains possess is understanding the myriad of ways spirituality and diverse faith traditions are personally expressed and how it is later manifested in many ways throughout the individual’s life, including their work life.

To begin to understand this more fully, the remaining chapters of this volume will outline the general faith doctrine and the spirituality expressions of humanism, Buddhist spirituality, Hindu spirituality, Islam spirituality, Jewish Spirituality and Christian spirituality. This volume will provide a solid comparison of the primary world faiths. Each chapter will review the core beliefs of each belief system.

An individual’s spirituality shapes their perspective of life and level of future hope. This is key to possessing realistic optimism and governs their daily resiliency when they are distressed or in the midst of crisis. Due to this principle, I will address whether or not each faith believes in a spiritual afterlife and what the path of salvation for each demands.

The reader is encouraged to delve deeper into each, as well as the hundreds and hundreds of ‘minor’ religions and faiths which are present in our diverse world. As previously mentioned, Volume Three of this Chaplain Skillset Series will discuss how to conduct individual spiritual assessments as well as to evaluate and organization or group’s spirituality.


Fairholm, Gilbert. Capturing the Heart of Leadership: Spirituality and Community in the New American Workplace. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 1997. Accessed July 29, 2014.  http://books.google.com.

Fry, Louis W., and Melissa Sadler Nisiewicz. Maximizing the Triple Bottom Line through Spiritual Leadership. Stanford: Stanford Business Books, 2013. Kindle eBook Location 1096-1116.

Guillory, William A.  Spirituality in the Workplace: A Guide for Adapting to the Chaotically Changing Workplace. Salt Lake City: Innovations International, 2000.

Marques, Joan, Satinder Dhiman and Richard King. Spirituality in the Workplace: What It Is, Why It Matters, How To Make It Work For You. Fawnskin: Personhood Press, 2007.

Neal, Judith A. “Spirituality in the Workplace.” accessed May 22, 2014, http://judineal.com/pages/pubs/academic1.htm#spirit.

Petchsawanga, Pawinee, and and Dennis Duchon. “Workplace Spirituality, Meditation, and Work Performance.” Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion 9, no. 2 (June 2012): 190.

Puchalski, Christina M., Robert Vitillo, Sharon K. Hull and Nancy Reller. “Improving the Spiritual Dimension of Whole Person Care: Reaching National and International Consensus.” Journal of Palliative Medicine 17, no. 6, 2014: 642.

VandeCreek, Larry, and Laurel Burton, eds. “Professional Chaplaincy: Its Role and Importance in Healthcare.” The Journal of Pastoral Care 55, no.1 (Spring 2001): 82.

A PTSD Book Review

A Book Review: “A Journey to Hope”

By Chaplain Keith A Evans


A Journey to Hope: Healing the Traumatized Spirit

Michael W. Langston, DMin and Kathy J. Langston, PhD

Silverton, OR: Lampion Press LLC, 2016. 207 pages.


This is a timely book on a critically important topic. It is also very personal. Presented through both the heart and eyes of a wounded warrior and his wife, the Langston’s speak (write) from their “insider” perspective of traveling through the post-traumatic stress of a combat chaplain. CAPT Michael Langston (Ret.) was a career U.S. Marine and Navy Chaplain. Chaplain Langston’s last deployment was in 2005-6 to Kabul, Afghanistan where he was appointed and served as the Theater Chaplain to the Combined Forces Command. Upon returning stateside, he served as the Commanding Officer of the Naval Chaplaincy School and Center as well as the Executive Director of the Armed Forces Chaplaincy Center in Ft. Jackson in Columbia, SC. As a military chaplain, he has literally done and “seen it all.” Prior to his retirement, Chaplain Langston was formally diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. As the wife of a hurting soldier, Kathy shares invaluable insight from her side of a difficult journey.

Initially, a perceived weakness of the text by this reviewer was the more extensive life and career review of Chaplain Langston. However, one quickly realizes how the career review allows the reader to begin seeing through his eyes (and his wife, Kathy’s) as the post-traumatic stress disorder develops and impacts their relationship and family life. The Langston’s intertwine their personal experiences throughout the text which correlate to the clinical and theoretical aspects of PTSD. The balance between anecdotal and academic is well poised, allowing the material to come alive and not remain abstract or distant.

Creatively, all Chapter titles and topics are introduced and follow themes from various stanzas of the U.S. Navy Hymn. For Navy and Marine warriors with PTSD, this will certainly add personal depth and meaning to this familiar anthem, giving hope that the Divine Creator can well be their Eternal Father, Strong to Save. Academically, Langston’s advice to spiritually recover from PTSD follows Walter Brueggeman’s concept of “orientation – disorientation – reorientation.” He also incorporates psychological principles he personally gained from Charles W. Hoge’s, Once A Warrior Always A Warrior, and from works by experts such as Calhoun and Tedeschi; Charles Figley; Dekel and Solomon; Drescher, Smith and Foy; Robert Grant and many others. The thesis supporting Journey to Hope is academically and biblically sound.

The text is made up of three general but unmarked sections. Chapters one through three is the life and career review of the Langstons. Chapters four through eight discuss the nuances and manifestations of PTSD as well as the personal implications it had upon the Langstons. Chapters nine and ten crystalize the spiritual insights, concepts, and structured principles that the Langstons learned while on their journey. It cannot be stated enough that the personal stories combined with the academic will prove invaluable counsel to all counselors, chaplains and ministers as they assist others in healing traumatized souls.

Readers will fully understand that the psychological, emotional and spiritual distress of combat is real and that quality methods for mental and moral repair from being entrenched in war is desperately needed. But for those who also experience PTSD, this text may well become a “foxhole buddy” that will assist them and their families through long nights with a shattered soul. While the topic is focused toward military veterans, the information and guidance contained is easily adapted to all who suffered with cumulative traumas.

In summary, this text relates the Langston’s own journey through PTSD and the path which they traveled. For the warrior with PTSD, this text will provide hope that they are not alone, knowing that fellow warriors have successfully traveled the road that lies before them. This text will help the PTS sufferer navigate along trusted coordinates that when closely followed will lead them towards divine hope and deep soul healing. For ministers and specifically chaplains working with military veterans, this text will provide a manner for the chaplain to see more clearly inside the spiritually wounded warrior in order to provide in-depth, yet concise and compassionate soul care.

Rev. Keith A Evans DC, DMin

Board Certified Professional Chaplain

Adjunct Faculty (College of Theology), Grand Canyon University

Staff Chaplain, Wyoming Medical Center, Casper Wyoming

Police Chaplain, Casper Police Department

excerpt The Chaplain Skillset Series, Vol 1

[This excerpt is from The Chaplain Skillset Series, Vol 1: The Fundamentals: The Why, What, Who and How of Chaplaincy.  The full e-book is available on Amazon.com]

The Chaplain Skillset Series emerged from the vast amount of resources that I have gathered throughout my own quest to become the best minister and professional chaplain that I can eventually be. The goal for this project is simply to share well-respected resources and learned lessons which any chaplain of any faith background and any ministry setting can utilize quickly and effectively. I will speak from my own experiences and from time to time lean heavily upon my own Christian theology to support various chaplain theories, functions and skillsets. Please understand that it is not my aim to offend any reader from other spirituality or religious doctrines. It is the responsibility of every chaplain to develop their own pastoral identity based upon how their life experiences and their own faith informs them. The contributors of this Series will share their perspectives.

The Series will touch upon the primary points which any minister should consider to become a highly skilled and competent chaplain. I am aware that this series may not be exhaustive for all the nuances of chaplaincy, but I will strive for it to be as comprehensive as possible in forming an effective foundation. The Series has a three-fold purpose. It is designed for: 1) individuals who are unfamiliar with the unique field of chaplaincy, 2) for laity or clergy who are discerning whether or not to go into chaplain ministry, and 3) for seasoned clergy and chaplains who simply want to revisit the tried and true skillsets which produce an excellence in chaplaincy. I will always attempt to give credit where credit is due as well as share the many resources which have been helpful in my own chaplain formation.

The Series begins with this initial volume on The Fundamentals. This first volume will attempt to succinctly answer four basic questions: “Why the need for Chaplains?” “What is Chaplaincy?” “Who can be a Chaplain?” and the most practical question for you, the reader, “How is chaplaincy administered? How does it work?” The last chapter will attempt to succeed in “Bringing the Pieces Together” for you through the presentation of three clinical verbatims.

Future volumes in the series will delve deeper into the challenging topics of Developing Skillsets for Handling Trauma and Crisis Situations, Understanding Spirituality and World Faith Expressions, Understanding the Spiritual Assessment, and a volume of essays on the topic on Religious Perspectives of Suffering. Other volumes will review the unique skillsets needed for various forms of chaplaincy such as law enforcement, EMS/fire, workplace, and hospice, as well as look into emerging chaplain specialties such as the new integrative chaplain.

I hope you enjoy The Chaplain Skillset Series. If you sift through and dig out just a few pearls of wisdom from each volume which you can readily use in your own chaplain ministry, then I will consider my efforts to have been worthwhile. May God’s peace be upon you as well as upon your specific ministry.

Chaplain Keith Evans, Editor

Chapter One: Why the Need for Chaplains?

Do you believe there really is a need or place for chaplaincy or chaplains? If there is a need, then is the need only a perceived need for religious people or is chaplaincy supported by solid anecdotal or qualitative evidence? If there is good information supporting chaplains, what makes chaplains needed? I hope to succinctly answer those questions plus many more in this first volume of The Chaplain Skillset Series.

The Widening Gap from Organized Faith

Have you truly considered, “Why the need for Chaplains?” The most current research compiled by the Barna Group (www.barna.org) reveals that 59% of 18-29 year olds with a Christian background have dropped out of attending a church regularly. In 2015, Barna discovered that 25% of unchurched adults are skeptics of God’s existence, labeling themselves as either agnostics or atheists. This trend is more predominant in younger adults who are more educated, racially and ethnically diverse. Across gender lines, females are noted as more religiously skeptical than males. Barna states, “the three primary components that lead to disbelief in God’s existence [by Skeptics] are 1) rejection of the Bible, 2) a lack of trust in the local church and 3) the cultural reinforcement of a secular worldview.” This information led the Barna Group to develop a “post-Christian metric” which looks at multi-dimensional factors to describe “the rich and variegated experience of spirituality and faith.” Spirituality is indeed diverse and is being defined and expressed in many ways. Anecdotal evidence will also reveal that this trend is also occurring throughout all the primary organized faiths: Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, etc.

For ministers and chaplains, this data does not come as a surprise, but as a validation of the changing expressions of faith and spirituality in America as well as across the globe. With this trend, I have found that the topic of spirituality may be the best place to begin any faith conversation. In fact, it might even prove to be quite difficult to find anyone who would not accept the statement that “all humans are spiritual and possess a spirituality, whether they recognize it or not.” If you look around and observe your friends, neighbors and co-workers, you will see individuals who are constantly in search for meaning and purpose in their lives and about situations they experience. With so many of the population not active in a local church or organized faith community, there is a great need for effective soul care to be brought to them in their respective places of work, by their co-workers, friends, and even by professional, workplace chaplains. Chaplains are uniquely qualified to bridge this growing gap in our society which has pushed back against organized religion yet still strives to find meaning and relevancy in their spiritual selves.

More Evidence for the Need of Chaplains

With more and more emphasis on spirituality, spirituality at work, and other faith and spirituality movements, there are less and less individuals sitting in church pews on the Sabbath. This has left a void on who or what becomes a person’s spiritual director, pastor or mentor. It also has left a misunderstanding of what soul care is and what soul care is not.

A definition of spirituality that I espouse and one that has also been widely received and accepted by most in healthcare chaplaincy was proposed by Dr. Christina Puchalski of the George Washington Institute of Spirituality and Heath. She states that, “Spirituality is the aspect of humanity that refers to the way individuals seek and express meaning and purpose and the way they experience their connectedness to the moment, to self, to others, to nature, and to the significant or sacred.” (Puchalski, 2014) Others perceive that spirituality stems from one’s inner consciousness and is the source behind the outward form of defined religious practices. (Guillory, xi) Religion is more strictly defined as how one’s spirituality is practiced within a specific doctrinal or theological context.

In David G. Benner’s text, “Care of Souls,” Benner states, “The soul is the meeting point of the psychological and spiritual. Its care must, by necessity, include both spiritual and psychological aspects.” In the past century there have been great strides in understanding the human psyche. But at the same time, the ‘experts’ have tended to dissect the immaterial self of individuals and divide it up into distinct components (psychological-spiritual-emotional), with each one standing separate and without connection to another. However, there is a growing understanding that this may not be the case. In fact, a dichotomist view of man may have more merit in this context of soul care when you assess how individuals cope with crises in their lives. Benner states that we should “understand soul as referring to the whole person, including the body, but with particular focus on the inner world of thinking, feeling, and willing. Care of souls can thus be understood as the care of persons in their totality.” (Benner, 22) If the public at large are not engaged in a local church or faith/spirituality community, then who assists them in their journey? Most often, probably no one.

The work of psychologist Kenneth Pargament has been especially well-received within the medical field over the past several decades. Pargament has written extensively on the psychology of an individual’s resiliency based upon religion and spirituality as positive coping skills. Pargament’s behavioral theories and review of literature studies can easily be extrapolated to include individuals under any stress. If you have a scientific lilt to your thinking, then Pargament’s The Psychology of Religion and Coping: Theory, Research, Practice (1997) will be a great resource for you.

The same can be said of the enormous work of medical physician and researcher Harold Koenig. Koenig’s extensive work Spirituality and Health Research: Methods, Measurements, Statistics and Resources (2011) and Handbook of Spirituality and Health, 2nd edition (2012). These more academic tests are replete with many categories of scientific data reviews which support the role and impact of spirituality upon specific physical conditions and mental health issues.

Spirituality has been shown to help a person’s overall resiliency after crisis and stress. The 2011 Balboni Study noted that individuals who have spiritual and religious resources available to them during a time of crisis, such as critical life situations and nearing death itself, these patient’s actually incur less overall medical costs. (Balboni, 2011) I infer from this study that it suggests the individuals became less anxious and more emotional and psychologically relaxed, when they felt more supported and less vulnerable. As this occurred, there was less need for anxiety or pain  medications, which led to the patient’s better comfort and rest, and even increased healing rates because their immune systems improved. When this occurs, the patient will often have a shorter length of stay and better satisfaction with their overall care!

A survey of the American Hospital Association’s database noted a “significantly lower rates of hospital deaths (β=0.4, p<.05) and higher rates of hospice enrollment (β =.06, p<.001) for patients cared for in hospitals that provided chaplaincy services compared to hospitals that did not.”(Flannelly, 2012) The study noted that the results “may be attributable to chaplain’s assistance to patients and families in making decisions about care at the end-of-life, perhaps by aligning their values and wishes with actual treatment plans.” (Flannelly, p. 6)

Spirituality is vastly important to the resiliency and maintenance of emotional well-being and wholeness for individuals while organized religion is being more and more opposed. If this is true, then what or who is the best possible facilitator to assist those in need? From my perspective, the chaplain is the most reasonable bridge builder and available public clergy when much of the population does not belong or attend a church on a regular basis. For the multitude of people with spiritual needs who are also in quest for their own deeper meaning and purpose of life, the well-equipped and skilled chaplain may well prove to be their best spiritual mentor.

Understanding and Developing Your Emotional & Spiritual Health

(These are similar, yet very different dimensions of your total “Self”)

Experiencing a great quality of life involves a balance between your physical, your emotional and your spiritual selves. The well-used analogy of a “‘three-legged stool” can be used as a visual image of what happens when one or two legs of your physical-emotional-spiritual selves are not in balance, or maybe not even present. Many people usually give their physical self the majority of attention and the emotional self receives a very small minority of attention. Leaving, more often than not, the spiritual self totally abandoned and without any intentional nurturing.

As this triad of total holistic health becomes more balanced, each leg’s strength or sphere of influence begins to overlap the others. The greater the overlap, the stronger the triad and a person’s resilience to crisis and daily cumulative stress. 

For the remainder of this discussion, let’s assume your physical self is well established and is the strongest leg of the “three-legged stool” of holistic wellness.

Emotional Health is internally managed and directed. This area involves your ability to process and work through experiences and stress. Your emotional health also refers to your ability to recover (your level of resiliency) from draining and overwhelming experiences in order to be able to respond to stressful situations later in a more appropriate manner. Emotional health is your ability to handle emotional baggage that you pick up while doing your job and living life. When you don’t possess good emotional health, you are more apt to become trapped, helplessly, in dark emotional states. Developing good positive ways to cope is crucial.

Employee Holistic Wellness

Spiritual Health is externally directed or influenced. This is your big picture perspective of life and how you connect to nature, the divine, crisis and even your own meaning and purpose. Spiritual health gives purpose to your human existence, while guiding and developing your character, morals, integrity and values of life. This area primarily involves how you interact with an external value system. Your spiritual and religious values shape your decision-making (ethics) and how you decide what ‘right or wrong’ to be.

Do you act and look at yourself and your work from an external perspective? It is from this external vantage point of higher, absolute values (may be religious or not) which shape your decisions of life, relationships, work integrity, and even the value or sanctity of life itself. Your spiritual health informs and guides the reasons and considerations that go into your daily decisions. People who state that they have a ‘calling’ to do certain type of work have a spiritual perspective for what they do. In fact, they realize that even if they made much more money doing a different job, they wouldn’t be truly happy not doing what they were divinely “called” to do for humanity.

Both emotional and spiritual stressors can create deep scars which, when not appropriately addressed, may even kill (through addictions and suicide). Both law enforcement and healthcare workers have a substantially higher risk for addictions and suicide. How is your emotional self? Your spiritual self?

If emotional health were the only consideration, then most first responders and healthcare providers would probably leave the field. Developing good emotional health is not enough for the fast-paced, cumulative stress. Your level of emotional health is how you react, manage and decide to cope (positively or negatively) to stress. You might be able to manage for a while, but eventually the stress will overwhelm you. In order to not become chronically overwhelmed, you must nurture your spirituality. Spiritual health is what inspires you and informs you of why you do what you do for others. The oft ignored spiritual component is the missing link to truly living life to the fullest.

It is when first responders (law enforcement/fire/ems) and healthcare providers go into their respected fields and develop a deep inner, spiritual connection to their job (and realize how they dramatically influence and impact society) that this spiritual awareness, energy, and inspiration keeps them healthy through a long career of helping others. But without good spiritual health, even when you have strong emotional coping strategies, you might easily burn-out and even consider harming yourself, others and even suicide. It is the spiritual component that generally is the weak area and serves as the tipping point in the three-legged stool analogy.

Just as physical health is of critical importance for you to do your job well, completing a healthy triad by developing and maintaining a good balance in your physical, emotional and spiritual health is of paramount importance. Don’t become a physical marvel who only possesses an empty, barren soul.  Become physically, emotionally and spiritually balanced.

Chaplain Keith


Kevin Gilmartin PhD, Emotional Survival for Law Enforcement, 2002.

Rabbi Carey Friedman, Spiritual Survival for Law Enforcement, 2015.

Religious Persecutions Shake Moral Conscience

I truly thought the graphic visual images of the Jordanian pilot who was recently captured, caged and burned alive by extremists would have been the last straw. Now, with continued boldness of more mass executions of Egyptian Christians, it only underscores the fact that thousands of Christ-followers have lost their lives in the name of their faith over recent years. These deranged extremists are murdering anyone who does not accept their way of thinking. This form of genocide fits a supremist mentality. I am not an expert, but common sense says that this will not suddenly halt and the cruel and imperialistic actions will only continue.  If this is true, then what or who will stop this?

I pray that the civilized world governments will collectively join forces. The nations need to proceed with divine wisdom beyond their capabilities, and quickly begin to proactively protect law abiding citizens of all faiths across the globe. It is time for the civilized and tolerant world nations to rise up and call these actions for what they truly are: shear evil.

During an era when nations held claim to but one religion, Jan Hus declared the authority of the Holy Scriptures to be greater than that of any earthly ruler. This ticked off a certain monarch dictator and Hus was burned to death. A century or so later, in order to allow common people to understand the Holy Scriptures, William Tyndale translated the Holy Bible from the ancient languages to a readable version.  Tyndale went against the accepted norms of his day and helped spread religious liberties to all people through education. For his boldness, Tyndale was strangled and then set on fire. But it was through Tyndale’s death, the flames of religious liberties ignited and spread like a wildfire throughout England. The Protestant Reformation emerged. Religious and spiritual thought processes changed. Nations became more civil. The world became better.

Religious martyrdom creates a significant influence and power upon societies and even the world. My prayer is that the countless lives which have been brutally taken by the hands of evil will not be summarily dismissed. The Global Good can prevail. But only if The Global Good does not remain silent, passive or apathetic.

Wars against enemies are justified when peace is offered but rejected, when property and lives are arbitrarily taken, when national interests are at stake, and when wars are approached as a national group and not as individual vigilantes. These are also biblical precedents and principles which were wisely placed into our Constitution. I am by no means a war-monger, but isn’t it time that our nation’s representatives take a decisive action against this clear and present evil of religious genocide?

The sanctity of every human life is precious and priceless. Our nation of unprecedented freedom needs to lead the charge and provide substantial wise leadership. I cannot imagine how much more it will take to shake our world’s collective moral conscience in order to begin resetting the course back toward civility and respect of religious expression for all once again.

Spirituality, Ethical Decisions and Life Enrichment

I presume that these topics are not often discussed in most of our passing conversations each day. But a person’s individual faith, understanding of theology and how they experience their own spirituality actually links to all aspects of their life, whether they realize of not. Have you ever thought about how you arrive at your daily decisions (large or small)?  A few years ago, a police office told me that for him, “Doing the right thing is always easier.” That may or may not be true based upon the consequences of the decision! But I sensed what the officer meant was that for his own conscience and “peace of mind” – doing the appropriate thing was always best, even it took more effort and responsibility!

But have you ever thought about what guides your decision making?

Your morals?

Your ethics of daily living?

How you treat and react to others?

The majority of my life is totally out of my control.  I know this may be difficult to believe, but I really did not have any say in what country or state where I was born, who my parents would be, the color of my eyes, or even my skin pigment!  That geography and genetics were up to something, someone, much greater than I.  But I have learned that I can only really control my own decisions, my reactions to life events and my own integrity in how I behave and live.  All else is external happenstance.

Princeton’s David Miller has developed a concept and premise that each of us have an innate spirituality and that our spiritual experiences inform our lives in four major areas and to different extents.  The virtues related to ethical decision-making and experiencing a fulfilled life are two areas that I view as paramount in my life, just as it was expressed by the police officer.

I’m a Christian who holds to biblical values and principles of living. The better I understand those principles and remain committed to living them out, the better I feel about myself and my greater purpose and meaning of my life here on Earth.  I only have one chance at this life and I have decided to make the most of it each and every day!

A question for you:  If you’re totally honest with yourself, how would you rate your present life satisfaction on a 1-10 scale? Are you wanting a deeper meaning, purpose and satisfaction in your life? If so, what do you believe or what have you discovered that may be that missing element?  For me, it was going much deeper into my own faith and spirituality which then, almost incredibly and instantaneously revealed many more meaningful opportunities and interests into my life.

I’d love to hear your story.

Chaplain Keith

Note: David W. Miller’s concept can be reveiwed at:  www.princeton.edu/faithandwork.

Does spirituality and faith shape you as a person and as a worker?



Did you know that your experience and practice of your spirituality Miller4Esand faith, informs and shapes your daily decisions, as well as enrich your life and help create and even direct your destiny? Dr. David Miller of Princeton’s Faith and Work Initiative thinks so. Miller developed a model that reveals the different aspects of how one’s spirituality and faith holistically effects them (see photo).

Miller’s model developed a qualitative survey which reveals how the four general sections are manifested in an individual’s life but also can reveal an organization’s workplace spirituality. As there is more overlap of the sections, there is an elevated perception and experience of workplace spirituality, meaning and purpose of your work, as well as a freedom and liberty to express your own faith and spirituality (verbally and non-verbally) as you work and among your peers.

Over the next few blogs, I’ll discuss these four sections in more detail. In the meantime, email me and let me know how you perceive spirituality and faith in your workplace and the reasons why you feel so. I’m really curious!

Is it positive? Restrictive? Would you want to voice your faith more?

Is there intimidation or a “code of silence” that you sense which limits what you say to others or patients?

How does your faith affect your job satisfaction, or even your ability to get over the “bad days”, etc. ?

Is your personal integrity and character shaped by your spirituality? If so, how?

I’d love to hear your comments (fully confidential, of course).

Chaplain Keith

The personal impact of organ donation

But those who hope in the Lord will RENEW THEIR STRENGTH, they will SOAR ON WINGS LIKE EAGLES, they will RUN AND NOT GROW WEARY, they will WALK AND NOT BE FAINT.

Isaiah 40:31

 [This story is used with permission. Only the names have been changed for privacy.]

These were the words that my mother in law was quoting to the nurses as she came out of surgery yesterday.   The Lord has provided for her in a mighty way and I wanted all of you to know the story.

Most of you know Deb has been struggling for years with health issues and in particular she has been battling kidney failure. She has tried with all her might to maintain minimum kidney function for as long as she could but the last few years have been quite the struggle for her and she has had to endure more than the average person could bare.  With every day going by it was a daily struggle for her to go about life but she did and she did it will a smile on her face.  She has faced many setbacks the in the last year or so and with each one she handled it with her head held high and not a complaint uttered on her tongue.  I admire her for this and feel that she has displayed true grace and beauty in her life.

Over the last few months, we knew that the kidneys were indeed failing and that Dialysis would be in the near future.  Because of this the search was on to find a kidney donor, because without a donor the wait for a kidney would be 3-5 long years of doing dialysis every day.  Everyone in the family did research and made calls to see if they could be donors… and no one was eligible.  I know this was a disappointment for Deb.  As the search continued there were a few people who unselfishly said that they would indeed donate their kidney.  My sister in law Jen offered to donate her kidney and ended up traveling several hours one way to the medical center several times to do hours of testing, only to find out that she was not a match.  We were all grateful for her willing heart. Deb also had a friend from her childhood that said she would be willing to donate so the testing began for her.

In the mean time, over the Christmas Holidays it became evident that the Kidneys had indeed failed and Deb ended up having to spend most of the Christmas Holidays in the Hospital.  During this time we had to do an emergency surgery to put in a Dialysis port so that she could start Dialysis as soon as possible.  Since then she has been going to the medical center three times a week to do 6  hour dialysis treatments, and then this last week she had to stay there for the whole week to do these treatments daily and begin training to start the at home dialysis.  Two Fridays ago, while receiving one of the treatments we got news that Deb’s childhood friend would be unable to donate her kidney.   It was a very disappointing day.  So at this point it was back to the drawing board; it was time to press forward with the daily dialysis to just try getting Deb feeling better again.

I know Deb was discouraged and tired, but she continued to be strong and put her hope and trust in the Lord, and as always, THE LORD PROVIDED!

On Wednesday afternoon we got a call that there had been a donor and that they had a kidney waiting for her.  As it turns out Deb’s brother has a family friend that had a 26 year old son that died expectantly that day. He had stated that he would be an organ donor and the family decided to give Deb the kidney.  The testing began to see if they were a match and they were.  It was a perfect match… even down to the tissues that are attached to the kidney.  I have been told that it is extremely rare to find a match this perfect and the glory for this can go to none other than God.  So the kidney was harvested on Thursday evening, sent to the transplant center overnight and Deb had a Kidney transplant first thing yesterday morning!!  I spoke with her yesterday afternoon after the surgery and the first thing she said to me was that she is going to be able to “soar on wings like eagles, run and not grow weary, walk and not grow faint.”

I am so happy for her that the Lord has heard her cry and answered her prayer so quickly. None of us could have imagined this story and once again I am amazed at God’s grace.  God never ceases to amaze me. I love how He works… We make up scenarios in our head of how we think things should turn out or go and his plans are always so much bigger than what we could ever imagine.

Deb will still have some hurdles to overcome but the new kidney is in, and was already active after the surgery (sometimes after surgery the kidney does not work right way and has to be dialyzed to start working).  I am so thankful that God has provided this for her and that it was so quick!  My prayers are with the family that lost their son and I pray that they will be blessed by knowing that they have given life to someone else.  The prayer for her now is that her body would not reject the new kidney and that she would be on the road to regaining her strength and good health.

Thank you all for your prayers for her over the last few months.  I just had to share this amazing story with those that I love…

Your Friend,


Thank you “H” for allowing me to sharing this story. If anyone is not a registered organ/tissue donor, please consider doing so. Your decision may dramatically effect another person’s life like Deb’s. You can simply go Online, and find your local Organ Donor Registry and make a few clicks, it’s that simple!

The Suppression of (some) Religious Expression

Has Your Faith and Freedoms Been Revised by Judicial Opinions?

For the past 50 years, Americans have been progressively compartmentalized, trained and pushed by our court systems to only practice our faith in private, segregated from any public expressions. There have now been recent legal cases where a grade school kid can’t privately read a bible at school. Really? Or teachers who aren’t allowed explain meanings of ancient proverbs like “The first shall be last and the last shall be first.” Really? Faith and the expression of faith in America is absolutely under attack. But this hasn’t been the entire historical trend of our nation.

“…Our nation’s Founding Fathers were united by their deep spiritual beliefs that shaped the foundation of America. But when our nation’s Founding Fathers established freedom of religion, was it their intent to ban acts of faith in the civil arena, and should our religious freedom be reserved to the privacy of our homes and churches? Did our Founding Fathers establish these freedoms to protect public policy from biblical values or to endorse them? How has America’s religious freedoms changed in the past 200 years?”  –David Barton, The American Heritage Series, Session 6, quote from the Introduction, (www.wallbuilders.com, 2007).

Author and historian David Barton asserts that the preservation of our national liberties will only be upheld by the conviction upon which the liberties are founded. In other words, the true source of our liberties (ie. mankind’s unalienable rights as being human), should only be said to have been given by God and definitely not re-defined and restricted by our courts.

As a reminder, the First Amendment states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.” How can this be inferred that the government can restrict or limit any faith expression, whether it’s private or public? Of course, most people I know would agree that any free expression of speech or faith should be always be respectful and civil to others. But are we now fearful and unwilling to mention any specific form of faith or biblical theology because of unwarranted legal recourse?

The October 17, 1789 proclamation for the first national day of Thanksgiving was offered by George Washington. This proclamation came almost immediately after the First Amendment for free speech and religious expression was voted upon. Washington proclaimed,“…Whereas, it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection and favor…”

In our nation’s past, it was not unusual for even prayers to even be made in courts by sitting judges and prayers offered over grand juries before they debated over a verdict! Our forefathers never envisioned that there would ever be such hostility toward a person’s faith and the practice of public prayer. Or maybe they did. Maybe our current hyper-political correctness was imagined by our Framers which led to their specific wording in our nation’s original documents, in hopes to protect our country from becoming what we have now become!

It is apparent in today’s society and court opinions, that courts are now legislating and defining what our “unalienable rights” should be, denying that they are bestowed by the infinite Divine Creator. Now, any public acknowledgment of God is being viewed with more and more religious bigotry. This is a 180-degree turn from the original intent of our Founding Fathers, our Constitution, and more importantly, by God. Our country needs elected legislators and judges who rule with the same perspective and opinion of our nation’s founding fathers.

American Exceptionalism (ie. being exceptional among the other global nations) is based upon the acknowledgement and recognition upon God’s hand upon the establishment of America’s governance and its affairs. If you want to see America return to its prominence, I feel that it will require a return to its original ideals. Please support your local, state and federal representatives and encourage them to action. Call them to immediately return our country’s laws to the original intent of our nation’s foundations which were set upon respect of faith, virtue and liberty. Let’s reverse this trend!

  • Chaplain Evans

Reference:  David Barton, The American Heritage Series, http://www.wallbuilders.com, 2007. Barton is a prolific writer, using  historical document to reveal the impact of religion and faith upon the establishment of the United States of America.